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Table 3 Lower limb biomechanical analyses, gait characteristics and footwear conditions of included studies

From: Lower limb biomechanics during running in individuals with achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review


Biomechanical variable(s)

Gait characteristics

Footwear condition(s)

Azevedo et al. [27]

Muscle activity (integrated EMG: normalised EMG amplitude as a percentage of root mean square amplitude): tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gluteus medius;

Kinematics (3D using Vicon® System 370 Version 2.5): sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle joints;

Kinetics: anterior-posterior and vertical ground reaction force;

Temporospatial parameters (speed, stride length, stride time, stride frequency).


Uv, Og

C (neutral running shoe)

Baur et al. [11]

Muscle activity (normalised EMG amplitude to mean amplitude of the entire gait cycle and timing of activity): tibialis anterior, peroneals, lateral head of gastrocnemius, medial head of gastrocnemius, soleus;

Kinetics: antero-posterior and vertical ground reaction force;

Plantar pressures (Novel Pedar® Mobile system): deviation of the centre of pressure.


Cv (12 km/hour), Tm

C (gymnastic shoe that simulates barefoot conditions) and C (standardised marketed reference running shoe

Donoghue et al. [33]

Kinematics (3D: functional data analysis using 3D Qualysis system with Peak Motus™ analysis system): frontal plane rearfoot and lower leg, sagittal plane ankle and knee joints.


Cv (~2.8 m/s), Tm

U (own running shoes)

Donoghue et al. [34]

Kinematics (3D Qualysis system with Peak Motus™ analysis system): frontal plane rearfoot and lower leg, sagittal plane ankle and knee joints.


Cv (~2.5-2.8 ± 0.2-0.4 m/s), Tm

Unable to determine (as type of footwear not specified) and B

Kaufman et al. [19]

Plantar pressures (Tekscan® in-shoe system): dynamic arch index.


Uv, Og

C (military footwear) and B

McCrory et al. [25]

Kinematics (2D Motion Analysis high-speed video camera): frontal plane rearfoot.

Kinetics: antero-posterior, medio-lateral and vertical ground reaction forces.


Uv ('training pace'), T (kinematics), Og (kinetics)

U (own footwear)

Ryan et al. [35]

Kinematics (3D ViconPeak® system with Bodybuilder 3.6® software): frontal and sagittal plane rearfoot and transverse plane tibia.


Uv, Og


Van Ginckel et al. [2]

Plantar pressures (RsScan Footscan® pressure plate): multiple variables (temporal data, peak force, force-time integrals, contact time, medio-lateral force ratios and position and deviation of the centre of force).


Uv, Og


Williams et al. [24]

Kinematics and moments (3D Qualisys motion system with Visual 3-D software): transverse plane tibia relative to foot (tibial motion) and tibia relative to femur (knee motion).


Cv, Og (3.35 m/s ± 5%).


  1. Abbreviations:
  2. EMG, electromyography; 2D, two-dimensional analysis; 3D, three-dimensional analysis; Cv, controlled velocity; Uv, uncontrolled velocity; Og, overground; Tm, treadmill; C, yes and controlled; U, yes but uncontrolled; B, barefoot.