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Figure 7 | Journal of Foot and Ankle Research

Figure 7

From: Lower limb biomechanics during running in individuals with achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review

Figure 7

Ground reaction forces during running (Black plots = significant effects with group difference adjacent the right error bar, Grey plots = non-significant effects). Panels A, B and C show vertical, antero-posterior and medio-lateral components respectively. Abbreviations: A: VLR, vertical loading rate; VIF, vertical impact force peak; Passive peak, passive peak; First NV peak, first normalised vertical peak force; First N min peak force, first normalised minimum peak force; VPF, vertical propulsive force; Active peak, active peak; Second NV peak force, second normalised vertical peak force; NV impulse at first peak, normalised vertical impulse at first peak; N impulse at second peak, normalised vertical impulse at second peak; N time to first V peak, normalised time to first vertical peak force; N time to min V peak, normalised time to minimum vertical peak force; First max loading rate, first maximum loading rate; N time to second V force, normalised time to second vertical peak force; BW, bodyweight; Sec, seconds. B: HBF, Horizontal braking force; N max braking force, normalised maximum braking force; N average braking force, normalised average braking force; N time to max brak force, normalised time to maximum braking force; N brak impulse, normalised braking impulse; HPF, horizontal propulsive force; N max prop force, normalised maximum propulsive force; Prop impulse, propulsive impulse; N average A-P force, normalised average antero-posterior force; Ave prop force, average propulsive force; N time to max prop force, normalised time to maximum propulsive force; BW, bodyweight; Sec, seconds. C: N max med force, normalised maximum medial force; N time to max med force, normalised time to maximum medial force; N max lat force, normalised maximum lateral force; N time to max lat force, normalised time to maximum lateral force; BW, bodyweight. * Variables were reported to have statistically significant differences between groups in original study.

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