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Table 5 Study parameters of the investigations into paediatric foot posture and body mass, show that footprint measures have dominated foot posture assessment.

From: The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

Year of publication First author, country Age of children (years) Sample size (n) Method of foot posture assessment Flat feet related to increased body mass
2001 Dowling, Australia 8 - 9 26 Footprints, pressure mat Yes
2006 Pfeiffer, Austria 3 - 6 835 Scanner, rearfoot angle Yes
2006 Mickle, Australia 4 - 5 38 Footprints, ultrasound measure of heel fat pad Yes
2007 Morrison, UK 9 - 12 200 Foot length/width, Navicular height Yes
2008 Mauch, Germany 2 - 14 2887 Scanner Yes
2009 Chen, Taiwan 5 - 13 1024 Footprints, 3D scan Yes
2010 Chang, Taiwan 7 - 12 2083 Footprints Yes
2011 Evans, Australia 7 - 10 140 FPI-6 No