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Table 1 Levels of evidence (adapted from [64])

From: Development of a practical guide for the early recognition for malignant melanoma of the foot and nail unit

Level of Evidence Type of evidence
1** High quality meta-analyses, or systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
1* Well conducted meta-analyses, systematic reviews of RCTs.
1- Meta-analyses, systematic reviews of RCTs or RCTs with a high risk of bias.
2** High quality systematic reviews of cohort or case-control studies. High quality cohort or case-control studies with a low risk of confounding bias or chance.
2* Well conducted case-control or cohort studies with a low risk of confounding bias or chance.
2 Case-control or cohort studies with a high risk of confounding bias or chance.
3 Non-analytic studies (case reports, case series).
4 Expert opinion, formal consensus.