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Table 4 Comparisons between Manchester Scale groups for radiographic angles and observations (see also Additional File 1 for diagrammatic representation of data).

From: Radiographic correlates of hallux valgus severity in older people

  Manchester Scale, mean (SD) unless otherwise stated ANOVA unless otherwise stated
Variable 0 (n = 144, 35.8%) 1 (n = 134, 33.3%) 2 (n = 87, 21.7%) 3 (n = 37, 9.2%) Fdf p-value
Hallux abductus angle 11.3 (6.7) § 14.3 (6.7) § 25.4 (7.8) § 37.3 (9.5) § 169.63,398 <0.001
Hallux abductus interphalangeal angle 17.3 (6.9) † ‡ 17.1 (7.3) # ‡ 14.2 (7.3) * # 11.1 (7.7) * # 10.23,398 <0.001
Proximal articular set angle 5.5 (4.1) § 7.6 (5.5) § 13.6 (6.5) § 20.4 (9.2) § 86.13,398 <0.001
Intermetatarsal angle 7.9 (2.1) †‡ 8.3 (2.4) †‡ 10.6 (3.1) § 13.3 (4.1) § 51.63,398 <0.001
Four grade sesamoid scale - median (range) 0 (0-2) 1 (0-2) 2 (0-3) 3 (1-3) χ2 9df = 242.1 <0.001
Seven position sesamoid scale - median (range) 2 (1-5) 3 (1-5) 4 (1-7) 6 (3-7) χ2 18df = 254.5 <0.001
Difference in lengths of first and second metatarsals (+ve indicates longer first metatarsal) 0.3 (3.0) †‡ 1.1 (3.3) 2.1 (2.3) * 4.2 (3.6) § 17.63,398 <0.001
Metatarsus adductus angle 18.3 (6.2) 17.3 (6.2) 18.0 (5.5) 19.1 (6.7) 1.23,398 0.314
Simplified metatarsus adductus angle 21.5 (6.9) 21.2 (6.3) 22.3 (5.4) 24.5 (8.5) # 2.83,398 0.038
Hallux abductus angle (Miller) 10.6 (6.3) § 13.2 (6.3) § 23.6 (7.6) § 35.6 (9.3) § 169.33,398 <0.001
Distal articular set angle 7.0 (4.1) 7.0 (4.5) 6.4 (5.4) 6.0 (3.9) 1.13,398 0.324
Congruency of first MPJ - median (range) 0 (0-2) 1 (0-3) 1 (0-3) 3 (1-3) χ2 18df = 266.0 <0.001
First metatarsal declination angle 20.1 (4.0) 19.6 (3.7) 19.6 (3.7) 19.0 (3.5) 0.93,398 0.418
Lateral intermetatarsal angle 2.5 (3.8) 2.5 (3.5) 2.6 (4.0) 1.5 (3.4) 0.73,398 0.577
Calcaneal inclination angle 20.6 (5.4) 19.4 (5.5) 20.4 (5.7) 19.6 (5.4) 1.23,398 0.305
Navicular height/truncated foot length 0.192 (0.038) †‡ 0.184 (0.034) 0.176 (0.029) * 0.170 (.038) * 5.73,398 0.001
Osteoarthritis of first MPJ (% OA within group) 44/144 (31%) 51/134 (38%) 48/87 (55%) 30/37 (81%) χ2 3df = 37.6 <0.001
Round first metatarsal head (% round within group) 42/144 (29%) 46/134 (34%) 56/87 (64%) 32/37 (87%) χ2 3df = 59.8 <0.001
  1. Note: *significantly different to grade 0, #significantly different to grade 1, significantly different to grade 2, significantly different to grade 3, §significantly different between all groups