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Table 4 Comparisons between Manchester Scale groups for radiographic angles and observations (see also Additional File 1 for diagrammatic representation of data).

From: Radiographic correlates of hallux valgus severity in older people

 

Manchester Scale, mean (SD) unless otherwise stated

ANOVA unless otherwise stated

Variable

0

(n = 144, 35.8%)

1

(n = 134, 33.3%)

2

(n = 87, 21.7%)

3

(n = 37, 9.2%)

Fdf

p-value

Hallux abductus angle

11.3 (6.7) §

14.3 (6.7) §

25.4 (7.8) §

37.3 (9.5) §

169.63,398

<0.001

Hallux abductus interphalangeal angle

17.3 (6.9) † ‡

17.1 (7.3) # ‡

14.2 (7.3) * #

11.1 (7.7) * #

10.23,398

<0.001

Proximal articular set angle

5.5 (4.1) §

7.6 (5.5) §

13.6 (6.5) §

20.4 (9.2) §

86.13,398

<0.001

Intermetatarsal angle

7.9 (2.1) †‡

8.3 (2.4) †‡

10.6 (3.1) §

13.3 (4.1) §

51.63,398

<0.001

Four grade sesamoid scale - median (range)

0 (0-2)

1 (0-2)

2 (0-3)

3 (1-3)

χ2 9df = 242.1

<0.001

Seven position sesamoid scale - median (range)

2 (1-5)

3 (1-5)

4 (1-7)

6 (3-7)

χ2 18df = 254.5

<0.001

Difference in lengths of first and second metatarsals (+ve indicates longer first metatarsal)

0.3 (3.0) †‡

1.1 (3.3)

2.1 (2.3) *

4.2 (3.6) §

17.63,398

<0.001

Metatarsus adductus angle

18.3 (6.2)

17.3 (6.2)

18.0 (5.5)

19.1 (6.7)

1.23,398

0.314

Simplified metatarsus adductus angle

21.5 (6.9)

21.2 (6.3)

22.3 (5.4)

24.5 (8.5) #

2.83,398

0.038

Hallux abductus angle (Miller)

10.6 (6.3) §

13.2 (6.3) §

23.6 (7.6) §

35.6 (9.3) §

169.33,398

<0.001

Distal articular set angle

7.0 (4.1)

7.0 (4.5)

6.4 (5.4)

6.0 (3.9)

1.13,398

0.324

Congruency of first MPJ - median (range)

0 (0-2)

1 (0-3)

1 (0-3)

3 (1-3)

χ2 18df = 266.0

<0.001

First metatarsal declination angle

20.1 (4.0)

19.6 (3.7)

19.6 (3.7)

19.0 (3.5)

0.93,398

0.418

Lateral intermetatarsal angle

2.5 (3.8)

2.5 (3.5)

2.6 (4.0)

1.5 (3.4)

0.73,398

0.577

Calcaneal inclination angle

20.6 (5.4)

19.4 (5.5)

20.4 (5.7)

19.6 (5.4)

1.23,398

0.305

Navicular height/truncated foot length

0.192 (0.038) †‡

0.184 (0.034)

0.176 (0.029) *

0.170 (.038) *

5.73,398

0.001

Osteoarthritis of first MPJ (% OA within group)

44/144 (31%)

51/134 (38%)

48/87 (55%)

30/37 (81%)

χ2 3df = 37.6

<0.001

Round first metatarsal head (% round within group)

42/144 (29%)

46/134 (34%)

56/87 (64%)

32/37 (87%)

χ2 3df = 59.8

<0.001

  1. Note: *significantly different to grade 0, #significantly different to grade 1, significantly different to grade 2, significantly different to grade 3, §significantly different between all groups