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Table 2 Selected results from studies using 3D scanners to measure anthropometric changes in the foot under weight bearing conditions.

From: The use of 3D surface scanning for the measurement and assessment of the human foot

   Percentage change in parameter  
Foot shape parameter Load Houston et al (40 feet) [38] Tsung et al (16 feet) [39] Xiong et al (60 feet) [40] Mean
Length HWB +1.7% +2.7% +1.1% (M 1.1%, F1.1%) +1.53%
  FWB +2.2% +3.4% +1.4% (M1.3%; F1.5%) +1.95%
Ball width HWB +3.8% +2.9% +2.2% (M2.6%; F 1.7%) +2.85%
  FWB +4.3% +6% +2.6% (M3.1%; F2%) +3.66%
Heel width HWB +4.8% +5.9% +1.1% (M1.4%; F0.8%) +3.04%
  FWB +4.8% +8.7% +1.6% (M1.8%; F1.3%) +3.68%
  1. Percentage changes relate to baseline measurements taken of the unloaded foot, HWB: half weight bearing; FWB: full weight bearing.