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Table 5 Mean differences between and within groups of included studies

From: Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review

Trial Difference between groups Differences within groups
Tillu and
Gupta
(1998)
N/A (one group only) (i) VAS pain:
   @ 4 weeks (34.7% improvement, p < 0.001)
   @ 6 weeks (67.9% improvement, p < 0.001)
   @ 6 weeks vs 4 weeks, (difference 33.2%, p = 0.047)
   (ii) Verbal pain score (% of improvement):
40.2 (40.1%) @ 4 weeks and 65.9 (32.8%) @ 6 weeks
  
    Intervention Control
Imamura et
al. (1998)
Duration of treatment
(weeks): Significantly
less in intervention
group (83.9% difference
between the groups,
p < 0.05)
(i) Mean duration of treatment in weeks (SD)
(ii) VAS pain:
   @ discharge
   @ 6 months
   @ 2 years
3.4 (2.2)
58.4% improvement,
p = 0.003
67.1% improvement,
p = 0.007
67.1% improvement
p = 0.002
21.1 (19.5)
54.9% improvement, p < 0.05
values not reported at 6 months
values not reported at 12 months
   (iii) PPT (gastrocnemius):
   @ discharge
   @ 6 months
   @ 2 years
130% increase, p = 0.001
71% increase, p = 0.009
55% increase, p = 0.023
PPT not reported for control
   (iv) PPT (medial calcaneal tubercle) at:
   @ discharge
   @ 6 months
   @ 2 years
106% increase, p = 0.004
values not reported at 6
   months
143% increase, p = 0.007
PPT not reported for control
Perez-Millan
and Foster
(2001)
N/A (one group only) (i) VAS pain:
   @ 6 weeks (46% improvement, p < 0.001)
   (ii) Foot function index questionnaire scores*:
   significantly less pain for 10 out of 12
  
  1. Key: N/A: Not applicable; VAS = visual analogue scale; MTrP = Myofascial trigger point; PPT = Pressure pain threshold; *The foot function index questionnaire used in this trial was not validated