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Table 1 Known conditions associated with or causing toe walking

From: Idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing dysfunction

Accidents causing fractures/soft tissue injuries [5]

Angelman syndrome [6]

Anklyosing spondlyitis [7]

Autistic spectrum disorders [8]

Cerebral Palsy [9, 10]

Charcot-Marie-Tooth [11]/Hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type 1A [12]

Congenital talipes equinus [13]

Developmental Coordination Disorder (Previously known as Clumsy Child Syndrome) [13]

Global developmental delay [14]

Leg length discrepancy [15]

Muscular Dystrophy [16]

Puncture wounds [17]

Scarring from accidents or burns [18]

Schizophrenia [19]

Spina Bifida [20]

Tethered cord syndrome [21]

Transient focal dystonia of the lower leg muscles [22]

Tumour within the belly of the gastrocnemius muscle [23]

Venous malformation of the gastrocnemius muscle [24]