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Table 1 Summary of Previous Rear-Foot FHA and IHA studies (in date order).

From: The instantaneous helical axis of the subtalar and talocrural joints: a non-invasive in vivo dynamic study

Talocrural
Study Study type # Inclination   
    Cor Sag Ax Rot Trans
Inman [11] Static, cadaver (max PF - DF) 49 82° (SD 3.6°) -- -- -- --
Manley [10] Static, cadaver (max PF - DF) -- 80° (SD 10°) -- 84° -- --
Lundberg [16] Static,in vivo (max PF - DF) 8 -- -- -2° (SD 5°) -- --
van den Bogert [21] Model optimization with in vivo data 14 -- 6.84° 19.1° -- --
Arndt [23] in vivo, gait (begin-end PF) 3 -- 7.5° - 33.6° 56.1° -69.9° -- --
Pearce [17] Static,in vivo (max inv -ev) 20 -- -- -- 5.2° (SD 2.2°) --
Siegler [15] Static,in vivo (neutral to inv) 7 -- -- -- 8.4° (SD 5.7°) 3 mm (SD 2.5 mm)
Current in vivo, simulated toe-raise 25 84.5° (SD 12.9°) 22.0° (SD 41.7°) 105.8° (SD 12.2°) 31.7° (SD 11.3°) -0.5 mm (SD 1.4 mm)
Subtalar
Manter [13] Static cadaver (max PF - DF) -- -- 42° (range 29°-47°) 16 (range 8° -24°) -- --
Root [9] Static, cadaver (max PF - DF) 22 -- 41° (SD 8.36°) 17° (SD 2.23°) -- --
Close [22] in vivo, gait 8     17.6° (SD 6.7°)  
Inman [11] Static, cadaver (max PF - DF) 49 -- 42° (SD 9°) 23 (SD 11°) -- --
Manley [10] Static, cadaver -- -- 41° 23° -- --
Lundberg [16] Static,in vivo (max PF - DF) 8 -- 34° (SD 16°) 32° (SD 16°) -- --
Pearce [17] Static,in vivo (max inv -ev) 20 -- -- -- 10.9° (SD 3.3°) --
Leardini [12] Static, cadaver (max Inv. - Ev) 6 -- range 43.5°-60.8° range 32.8°-46.5° -- --
Arndt [23] in vivo, gait (begin-end PF) 2 -- 31.4° - 36.45° 15.7° -23.5° -- --
Siegler [15] Static,in vivo (neutral to inverted) 7 -- -- -- 9° (SD 4°) 1.9 mm (SD 1.2 mm)
Biemers [14] Static,in vivo (max PF- DF) 20 -- 9.5° (SD 46.8°) 23.6° (SD 30.1°) 7.3° (SD 6.0) 1.mm (SD 2.1 mm)
Current in vivo, simulated toe-raise 25 variable variable variable 15.1° (SD 9.7°) -0.3 mm (SD 1.4 mm)
  1. The abbreviations used are: # - number of subjects or specimens; Cor - coronal plane; Sag - sagittal plane; Ax - axial plane; Rot - rotation about the FHA; Trans - translation along FHA and SD - standard deviation. "Max PF-DF", "max Inv-Ev", and "Neutral to inverted" indicate that the FHA was defined as the change in joint attitude between two poses (extreme PF to extreme DF, extreme Inversion to extreme Eversion, and neutral to extreme inversion respectively).