Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait

  Foot posture groups
  Flat-arch
n = 30
Normal-arch
n = 30
General anthropometric   
Gender ratio (female/male) 15/15 15/15
Age mean ± SD (years) 21.8 ± 4.3 23.6 ± 5.9
Height mean ± SD (cm) 171.0 ± 10.0 169.7 ± 9.7
Weight mean ± SD (Kg) 73.3 ± 15.50 69.9 ± 13.6
Left or right foot countFC 13 right/17 left 13 right/17 left
Clinical measurements   
AI mean ± SD 0.30 ± 0.07* 0.24 ± 0.04*
NNHt mean ± SD 0.18 ± 0.04 0.27 ± 0.03
Radiographic measurements   
CIA mean ± SD (degrees) 15.7 ± 4.5# 20.8 ± 3.5#
C1MA mean ± SD (degrees) 142.3 ± 6.0 132.8 ± 4.1
TNCA mean ± SD (degrees) 27.6 ± 9.0^ 11.9 ± 8.1^
T2MA mean ± SD (degrees) 27.1 ± 10.1¥ 13.0 ± 6.4¥
Walking velocity 1.21 ± 0.13** 1.10 ± 0.11**
  1. AI -- arch index, NNHt -- normalised navicular height truncated, CIA -- calcaneal inclination angle, C1MA -- calcaneal first metatarsal angle, TNCA -- talo-navicular coverage angle, T2MA -- talus-second metatarsal angle.FCdenotes the number of participants whose left or right foot was suitable for inclusion in their respective group (i.e. normal-arch or flat-arch).
  2. Mean differences and 95% confidence interval (CI) expressed relative to normal-arch.
  3. Statistically significant findings for comparisons listed below (p < 0.001):
  4. * AI: mean difference 0.06, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.09
  5. NNHt: mean difference -0.09, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.08
  6. #CIA: mean difference -5.13°, 95% CI -7.21 to -3.05°
  7. C1MA: mean difference 9.47°, 95% CI 6.8 to 12.14°
  8. ^TNCA: mean difference 15.70°, 95% CI 11.28 to 20.12°
  9. ¥ T2MA: mean difference 14.08°, 95% CI 9.73 to 18.44°
  10. ** Walking speed: mean difference 0.11 ms, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17 ms