
Foot posture groups



Flatarch
n = 31

Normalarch
n = 32

Others
n = 28


General anthropometric
   
Gender ratio (female/male)

16/15

16/12

17/15

Age mean ± SD (years)

22.0 ± 4.3

23.5 ± 5.7

24.2 ± 6.7

Height mean ± SD (cm)

171.0 ± 10.0

169.7 ± 9.7

n/a

Weight mean ± SD (Kg)

73.3 ± 15.50

69.9 ± 13.6

n/a

Left or right foot count

16 right
15 left

14 right
18 left

13 right
15 left

Clinical measurements
   
AI mean ± SD

0.30 ± 0.07*

0.24 ± 0.04*

0.23 ± 0.02

NNHt mean ± SD

0.18 ± 0.04^{†}

0.27 ± 0.03^{†}

0.25 ± 0.06

Radiographic measurements
   
CIA mean ± SD (degrees)

16.1 ± 5.0^{#}

20.9 ± 3.4^{#}

24.9 ± 4.9

C1MA mean ± SD (degrees)

141.7 ± 6.7^{‡}

132.8 ± 4.0^{‡}

129.0 ± 7.7

TNCA mean ± SD (degrees)

27.5 ± 8.9^

12.5 ± 8.6^

13.0 ± 6.5

T2MA mean ± SD (degrees)

27.5 ± 10.2^{¥}

13.3 ± 6.3^{¥}

13.8 ± 5.3

 AI – arch index, NNHt – normalised navicular height truncated, CIA – calcaneal inclination angle, C1MA – calcaneal first metatarsal angle, TNCA – talonavicular coverage angle, T2MA – talussecond metatarsal angle.
 Mean differences and 95% confidence interval (CI) expressed relative to normalarch.
 Statistically significant findings for comparisons listed below (p < 0.001):
 * AI: mean difference 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.08

^{†} NNHt: mean difference 0.09, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.07

^{#} CIA: mean difference 4.8°, 95% CI 6.9° to 2.6°

^{‡} C1MA: mean difference 9.0°, 95% CI 6.2° to 11.7°

^{^} TNCA: mean difference 15.0°, 95% CI 10.7° to 19.3°

^{¥} T2MA: mean difference 14.2°, 95% CI 9.9° to 18.4°