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Table 1 Participant anthropometric and foot posture characteristics

From: A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements

  Foot posture groups
  Flat-arch n = 31 Normal-arch n = 32 Others n = 28
General anthropometric    
Gender ratio (female/male) 16/15 16/12 17/15
Age mean ± SD (years) 22.0 ± 4.3 23.5 ± 5.7 24.2 ± 6.7
Height mean ± SD (cm) 171.0 ± 10.0 169.7 ± 9.7 n/a
Weight mean ± SD (Kg) 73.3 ± 15.50 69.9 ± 13.6 n/a
Left or right foot count 16 right 15 left 14 right 18 left 13 right 15 left
Clinical measurements    
AI mean ± SD 0.30 ± 0.07* 0.24 ± 0.04* 0.23 ± 0.02
NNHt mean ± SD 0.18 ± 0.04 0.27 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.06
Radiographic measurements    
CIA mean ± SD (degrees) 16.1 ± 5.0# 20.9 ± 3.4# 24.9 ± 4.9
C1MA mean ± SD (degrees) 141.7 ± 6.7 132.8 ± 4.0 129.0 ± 7.7
TNCA mean ± SD (degrees) 27.5 ± 8.9^ 12.5 ± 8.6^ 13.0 ± 6.5
T2MA mean ± SD (degrees) 27.5 ± 10.2¥ 13.3 ± 6.3¥ 13.8 ± 5.3
  1. AI – arch index, NNHt – normalised navicular height truncated, CIA – calcaneal inclination angle, C1MA – calcaneal first metatarsal angle, TNCA – talo-navicular coverage angle, T2MA – talus-second metatarsal angle.
  2. Mean differences and 95% confidence interval (CI) expressed relative to normal-arch.
  3. Statistically significant findings for comparisons listed below (p < 0.001):
  4. * AI: mean difference 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.08
  5. NNHt: mean difference -0.09, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.07
  6. # CIA: mean difference -4.8°, 95% CI -6.9° to -2.6°
  7. C1MA: mean difference 9.0°, 95% CI 6.2° to 11.7°
  8. ^ TNCA: mean difference 15.0°, 95% CI 10.7° to 19.3°
  9. ¥ T2MA: mean difference 14.2°, 95% CI 9.9° to 18.4°