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Table 1 Participant anthropometric and foot posture characteristics

From: A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements

 

Foot posture groups

 

Flat-arch

n = 31

Normal-arch

n = 32

Others

n = 28

General anthropometric

   

Gender ratio (female/male)

16/15

16/12

17/15

Age mean ± SD (years)

22.0 ± 4.3

23.5 ± 5.7

24.2 ± 6.7

Height mean ± SD (cm)

171.0 ± 10.0

169.7 ± 9.7

n/a

Weight mean ± SD (Kg)

73.3 ± 15.50

69.9 ± 13.6

n/a

Left or right foot count

16 right

15 left

14 right

18 left

13 right

15 left

Clinical measurements

   

AI mean ± SD

0.30 ± 0.07*

0.24 ± 0.04*

0.23 ± 0.02

NNHt mean ± SD

0.18 ± 0.04

0.27 ± 0.03

0.25 ± 0.06

Radiographic measurements

   

CIA mean ± SD (degrees)

16.1 ± 5.0#

20.9 ± 3.4#

24.9 ± 4.9

C1MA mean ± SD (degrees)

141.7 ± 6.7

132.8 ± 4.0

129.0 ± 7.7

TNCA mean ± SD (degrees)

27.5 ± 8.9^

12.5 ± 8.6^

13.0 ± 6.5

T2MA mean ± SD (degrees)

27.5 ± 10.2¥

13.3 ± 6.3¥

13.8 ± 5.3

  1. AI – arch index, NNHt – normalised navicular height truncated, CIA – calcaneal inclination angle, C1MA – calcaneal first metatarsal angle, TNCA – talo-navicular coverage angle, T2MA – talus-second metatarsal angle.
  2. Mean differences and 95% confidence interval (CI) expressed relative to normal-arch.
  3. Statistically significant findings for comparisons listed below (p < 0.001):
  4. * AI: mean difference 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.08
  5. NNHt: mean difference -0.09, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.07
  6. # CIA: mean difference -4.8°, 95% CI -6.9° to -2.6°
  7. C1MA: mean difference 9.0°, 95% CI 6.2° to 11.7°
  8. ^ TNCA: mean difference 15.0°, 95% CI 10.7° to 19.3°
  9. ¥ T2MA: mean difference 14.2°, 95% CI 9.9° to 18.4°