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Table 1 Characteristics of participants with and without calcaneal spurs.

From: Plantar calcaneal spurs in older people: longitudinal traction or vertical compression?

  Calcaneal spur absent (n = 97) Calcaneal spur present (n = 119)
Age (years) 76.2 (7.0) 75.8 (6.2)
Female – n (%) 64 (66) 76 (64)
Obese – n (%) 9 (9) 53 (45)*
Major medical conditions – n (%)   
   Osteoarthritis 57 (59) 94 (80)*
   Rheumatoid arthritis 5 (5) 2 (2)
   Diabetes mellitus 15 (16) 17 (14)
   Stroke 6 (6) 3 (3)
   Peripheral vascular disease 12 (12) 15 (13)
   Hypertension 54 (56) 76 (64)
Current or previous heel pain – n (%) 12 (12) 47 (40)*
Achilles tendon spur – n (%) 37 (38) 66 (56)*
Radiographic foot posture measures   
   Calcaneal inclination angle (°) 21.2 (5.1) 20.4 (6.1)
   Calcaneal-first metatarsal angle (°) 132.5 (7.5) 133.8 (8.9)
   Navicular height (mm) 30.2 (5.2) 30.9 (6.3)
  1. * significant difference for χ2 test, p < 0.01