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Table 1 Stages of Hallux Valgus as defined by Root et al 1977

From: Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus: a comparison of impact on health-related quality of life in patients presenting to foot surgeons in Australia

Stage 1
Lateral displacement of the great toe (hallux) at the metatarsophalangeal joint
Minimal sesamoid displacement
Stage 2
Hallux abductus deformity (great toe pressing against the 2nd toe)
Sesamoid displacement apparent
Stage 3
Increased intermetatarsal angle
Sesamoid displacement to level of partial disarticulation with the metatarsal head
Possible associated 2nd hammertoe and bony adaptation of metatarsal head
Stage 4
Partial/complete dislocation of hallux at metatarsal phalangeal joint.
Hallux under-riding or over-riding lesser toes