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Table 2 Quality assessment of included articles (adapted from Downs & Black [49])

From: Effect of foot orthoses on lower extremity kinetics during running: a systematic literature review

  Reference: [51] [52] [58] [53] [54] [60] [55] [59] [56] [57]
1 Is the hypothesis/aim of the study clearly described ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 Are the main outcomes to be measured clearly described in the Introduction or Methods section ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
3 Are the characteristics of the patients included in the study clearly described ? 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
4 Are the interventions of interest clearly described ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
5 Are the main findings of the study clearly described ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
6 Does the study provide estimates of the random variability in the data for the main outcomes ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
7 Have actual probability values been reported (e.g. 0.035 rather than <0.05) for the main outcomes except where the probability value is less than 0.001 ? 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
8 Were the subjects asked to participate in the study representative of the entire population from which they were recruited ? 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
9 Were those subjects who were prepared to participate representative of the entire population from which they were recruited ? 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
10 Was an attempt made to blind study subjects to the intervention they have received ? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11 Was an attempt made to blind those measuring the main outcomes of the intervention ? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 If any of the results of the study were based on "data dredging", was this made clear ? 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
13 Were the statistical tests used to assess the main outcomes appropriate ? 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
14 Were the main outcome measures used accurate (valid and reliable) ? 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
15 Were study subjects randomised to intervention groups ? 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
  Quality Index Score (max score = 15) 10 8 10 11 10 6 11 9 11 10
  Quality Index % 67 53 67 73 67 40 73 60 73 67
  1. (0 = no/unable to determine, 1 = yes)